Ok, we’ve got our fist remote repository in GitHub, now we want to link our local version of Git to this repository and we do this by using a secure shell (SSH) protocol connection.
SSH is a secure way of connecting a machine to a remote server; in our case connecting a local machine to a GitHub profile.
SSH uses a pair of connected keys (these are text files that contain a unique and long string of characters) one key is the private key, this will live on the local machine and the other is the public key, this will be given to the server. When the local machine tries to connect to the server, the private key on the local machine is compared with the public key on the server; if the two are a pair, the server grants access to the local machine without the need for a password.
The SSH keys are long enough to be very secure, and are nearly impossible to crack with a brute force attack.
Start Git Bash (yes we’re back here again).
This will start in the default directory; earlier, in § 3.3.1, I set this to be:
D:\2500 Git Projects
You probably have a different directory, but I’ll run through it on my machine.
This is what I have (Figure 4.13):
Now, while this is the directory we want for our repositories, it is not the place to put the SSH keys, these have to go in the user directory for the current user. In my case, this is (if you remember from § 3.3):
The easiest way to do this is to, open a Windows command prompt (Figure 4.14:then type in the box). This will open a Windows command prompt and it will be set automatically to the correct directory. Mine looks like
Yours will be different but will be similar (probably something like this):
We need to create a directory to store the SSH keys. This directory should be called .ssh (note the leading full stop). To create the directory, enter the following command in the Windows command prompt (obviously, don’t enter the C:\Users\Michael Gledhill> bit, just the stuff after it):
|C:\Users\Michael Gledhill> mkdir .ssh|
To see if its worked, enter:
|C:\Users\Michael Gledhill> dir|
This will list the directories in the user folder; I have this (I’ve highlighted the new folder in orange .ssh, Figure 4.15):
That’s all we need, close the Windows command prompt by clicking the cross at the top.
Go back to the Git Bash window we opened earlier.
The next thing is to use the SSH keygen command to create the keys. Enter the following:
|$||ssh-keygen -t rsa -C "email@example.com"|
Use the email address you associated with your GitHub account. In my case I used firstname.lastname@example.org. So I entered the command:
|$||ssh-keygen -t rsa -C "email@example.com"|
I’ll go through what happens step by step. Enter the above command and hit return. You will get the following response (or something similar):
It’s saying it wants to save the file in the .ssh directory we just created and that the keys will be in files called id_rsa. Hit return:
Now it’s asking for a passphrase, this is an additional layer of security. If you enter a passphrase†1, you will be prompted for it whenever you connect to the remote repository. I find this too annoying, so I don’t use a passphrase.
|†1||An SSH passphrase is a phrase that is known only to you and is used to encrypt your private SSH key, a passphrase should be at least 15 characters in length, contain upper and lower case letters, numbers and punctuation. Something like: H3ct0r & H3nry aRE Stup1D d0g5. It needs to be something you can remember.|
|If a passphrase is not used, anyone who has access to your computer or your private SSH key can gain access to your repositories. If a passphrase is used, then the private key is further encrypted and is useless without the passphrase.|
If you want to use a passphrase enter it now, hit return and enter it again. If you don’t want a passphrase just press return twice. Now you will get something like this:
What this means is that the private key has been saved in the file id-rsa and the public key in the file id_rsa.pub. Both files are in the .ssh directory we created earlier.
The key finger print is a shortened version of the public key and is can be used to identify the key itself—a bit like the seven digit short hash key rather than the full 40 digit hash for a commit.
The randomart image is a mechanism that allows two keys to be compared by eye (rather than comparing a long string of numbers and letters).
The only bit of this we need is the path to the public key, it’s highlighted in Figure 4.17:
We need to open this file in a text editor, the easiest way is to highlight the path in the Git Bash window and copy it (either right click and select copy or hit ctrl+insert).
Enter the following command (obviously with your own data):
|$||npp "/c/Users/Michael Gledhill/.ssh/id_rsa.pub"|
To do this enter npp " then paste in the copied path and filename (right click and select paste or hit shft+insert) followed by a closing quote ", like this:
Alternatively navigate to the path in Windows Explorer, right click the file and select
Either way, the file will open in Notepad++. It will look like this:
If you can’t see it all, if it disappears off the right hand side of the screen, you need to turn on word wrap, click the icon (or, about a quarter of the way down).
Select all the text, from the first s of ssh to the last character of the email address and copy it to the clip board ( , or ). Now you can close the file.
Go to GitHub and sign in. This will take you to the newsfeed page, this is mine (Figure 4.21):
Click the profile icon at the top right and select Figure 4.21).from the dropdown (again
This opens the profile page, again mine looks like this:
Now click Figure 4.23:,
Click the green Figure 4.24):button at the top to expand the selection box (
Click inside thearea and paste in the public key data copied to the clip board (right click inside it and select or ).
In thebox enter something that identifies the machine the key came from. It doesn’t have to be the actual machine’s name, it’s just so you can identify where the key originated and the machine it is installed on.
That’s it, click Figure 4.25):; you will now have to re-enter your GitHub password to confirm the addition (
This will take you back to the SSH and GPG keys page and show the new entry (Figure 4.26).
If you intend to use more than one computer to access the GitHub account, you must make a new key on each additional computer and add the key for that computer to GitHub in the same way we have done here.
Ok, we’ve set it up; how do we know it’s working?—well back to Git bash.
Close Git Bash and restart it—this just reinitialises everything.
Now enter the command:
|$||ssh -T firstname.lastname@example.org|
This will generate the following response (your finger print will be different, obviously):
It’s just warning you that it is about to connect to a server and are you sure you want to continue. Well we do, typeand hit return.
Now you will get something like this:
This is good news, github.com has been permanently added to the list of known hosts and (in my case) the practicalseries-lab user has been authenticated by GitHub. The github does not provide shell access warning is fine, we don’t expect it to.
Now go back to the SSH and GPG keys page on GitHub (if you still have it open from before, just refresh it,). The list of SSH keys will now have changed from at the bottom, to . The key will also have gone green.
So that’s it, everything is now linked together and is working properly.